Photochemically generated ionic species for cationic and step-growth polymerizations

Kaya K., Kılıçlar H. C., Yağcı Y.

European Polymer Journal, vol.190, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 190
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2023.112000
  • Journal Name: European Polymer Journal
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Chemical Abstracts Core, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Cationic Polymerization, Free-radical promoted cationic polymerization, Ionic species, Photoinduced polymerization reactions, Step-growth polymerization, Sustainable chemistry
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Developing innovative photochemical methods for the purpose of attaining green chemistry and mitigating global warming has recently become a very important concept. While we have to move towards a more sustainable world, daily life is becoming increasingly dependent on the use of polymeric materials. Conventional thermal polymerization systems fail to fulfill the requirements of sustainable chemistry, resulting in an increase in energy demand. This article outlines cationic and step-growth polymerizations of various monomers initiated by different photochemically generated ionic species and their advantages over conventional polymerization systems. Typical examples of photoinduced cationic and step-growth polymerizations performed under UV, visible and near-infrared (NIR) light are summarized under two main categories; direct and indirect initiating systems. In direct initiating systems the use of commercially available and structurally modified onium salts as one-component photoinitiators for both polymerizations are summarized. Indirect initiating systems, proceeding through i) photoinduced electron/energy transfer (PET), ii) charge-transfer complexation and iii) free-radical promoted cationic polymerization (FRPCP), are summarized with a focus on the recent step-growth methods developed in our laboratory.