This work investigates the in vivo dielectric properties of healthy and benign rat mammary tissues in an attempt to expand the dielectric property knowledge of animal models. The outcomes of this study can enable testing of microwave medical technologies on animal models and interpretation of tissue alteration-dependent in vivo dielectric properties of mammary tissues. Towards this end, in vivo dielectric properties of healthy rat mammary tissues and chemically induced benign rat mammary tumors including low-grade adenosis, sclerosing adenosis, and adenosis were collected with open-ended coaxial probes from 500 MHz to 18 GHz. The in vivo measurements revealed that the dielectric properties of benign rat mammary tumors are higher than the healthy rat mammary tissues by 9.3% to 35.5% and 19.6% to 48.7% for relative permittivity and conductivity, respectively. Furthermore, to our surprise, we found that the grade of the benign tissue affects the dielectric properties for this study. Finally, a comparison with ex vivo healthy human mammary tissue dielectric properties revealed that the healthy rat mammary tissues best replicate the dielectric properties of healthy medium density human samples.