ISPRS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEO-INFORMATION, vol.10, no.3, 2021 (SCI-Expanded)
3D scene classification has become an important research field in photogrammetry, remote sensing, computer vision and robotics with the widespread usage of 3D point clouds. Point cloud classification, called semantic labeling, semantic segmentation, or semantic classification of point clouds is a challenging topic. Machine learning, on the other hand, is a powerful mathematical tool used to classify 3D point clouds whose content can be significantly complex. In this study, the classification performance of different machine learning algorithms in multiple scales was evaluated. The feature spaces of the points in the point cloud were created using the geometric features generated based on the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix. Eight supervised classification algorithms were tested in four different areas from three datasets (the Dublin City dataset, Vaihingen dataset and Oakland3D dataset). The algorithms were evaluated in terms of overall accuracy, precision, recall, F1 score and process time. The best overall results were obtained for four test areas with different algorithms. Dublin City Area 1 was obtained with Random Forest as 93.12%, Dublin City Area 2 was obtained with a Multilayer Perceptron algorithm as 92.78%, Vaihingen was obtained as 79.71% with Support Vector Machines and Oakland3D with Linear Discriminant Analysis as 97.30%.