Toxic mould contamination causes mycotoxin production in spices and herbs at various stages of production. Besides aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, fumonisins and trichothecenes are also found in spices. The aim of this study is to provide some general information on moulds and mycotoxins occurring in spices and to present a case study reflecting the mycoflora. and aflatoxin content of red pepper marketed in Turkey. A total of 36 samples of red pepper grown in 4 different regions of Turkey were examined. Aspergillus and Penicillium were the two most commonly encountered fungal genera followed by Eurotium. Aflatoxin B-1 was detected only in 5 samples at levels between 10.5 and 31.2 ppb.