Assessment of Multi-GNSS RT-PPP Services for the Antarctic Region

Erol S., Alkan R. M., Mutlu B.

Arctic, vol.76, no.3, pp.357-369, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 76 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.14430/arctic78405
  • Journal Name: Arctic
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, American History and Life, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Artic & Antarctic Regions, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Environment Index, Geobase, Historical Abstracts, MLA - Modern Language Association Database, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.357-369
  • Keywords: Antarctica, IGS-RTS, NAVCAST, Precise Point Positioning (PPP), RT-PPP
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The international service that ensures access to data and products of global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs), known as the IGS, runs a real-time service (RTS) project to support users who need real-time access to precise products. Thanks to the RTS project, it is now possible to obtain real-time precise point positioning (RT-PPP) solutions. RT-PPP can be used in many real-time positioning applications that require a high level of accuracy, efficiency, and flexibility, including earth sciences, atmosphere sciences, marine sciences, natural hazards, and many more. In this study, we tested the impact of different worldwide RTS products and satellite configurations on the performance of RT-PPP accuracy, as well as convergence time, in the Antarctic’s challenging environment and extreme atmospheric conditions. We applied RT-PPP solutions using real-time precise products (satellite orbit/clock corrections, and biases to conduct the real-time PPP) provided by the IGS and NAVCAST (a real-time PPP positioning service) based on different GNSS constellations: GPS-only, Galileo-only, and a combination of GPS and Galileo. In this way, the performance of two different real-time (RT) services was compared with each other. At the same time, the effectiveness of the Galileo global navigation satellite system for RT-PPP was also tested, and the Galileo system’s contribution to the GPS-only RT-PPP solution was investigated. The PPP-WIZARD software was used to process the corrections and GNSS data from a reference station in the Antarctic region. Although GPS-only, Galileo-only, and multi-GNSS solutions obtained from both RT services were found to have very close accuracy to each other, the combination of the GPS and Galileo systems produced better accuracy than when using the GPS system alone. According to the numerical results of this study, it was concluded that the real-time PPP technique gave promising results in such a challenging environment of the Antarctic region. However, we also observe that the RT-PPP technique requires a stable and robust internet connection, which might limit its usefulness in remote regions. Overall, we found the RT-PPP technique to be a viable alternative to conventional relative GNSS positioning techniques, especially in areas where continuously operating reference networks or similar networks are lacking.