Coal and gas outburst hazard in Zonguldak Coal Basin of Turkey, and association with geological parameters

Fişne A., ESEN O.

NATURAL HAZARDS, vol.74, no.3, pp.1363-1390, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 74 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11069-014-1246-9
  • Journal Name: NATURAL HAZARDS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1363-1390
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Coal and gas outbursts have been a major geological hazard to underground coal mining for over 150 years and continue to cause serious problems in all over the world. In order to have a better understanding of the phenomenon, it is worthwhile making a historical review of the occurrences and a combat of the events. Many investigations and researches have been done to characterize and prevent the outburst occurrences in the worldwide, but there has been no detailed investigation about coal and gas outburst occurrences in Turkey. This paper presents the outburst data of coal mines in Turkey since 1969. Based on the observation of outburst occurrence in Turkey in the period from 1969 to 2012 as well as mining and geological conditions, detailed analysis of the possible causes of outburst accidents is conducted. The influences of some geological parameters such as the depth of occurrence, thickness and inclination of coal seams, the amount of ejected material (coal and gas), and tectonic disturbances on coal and gas outburst occurrences have been statistically investigated. The outburst occurrences throughout the world were reviewed and compared with the Turkish outburst experiences. Suggestions are put forward on future studies that could be of interest to government agencies regarding strategic policies, proper technical management practice, identification of outburst-prone coal seams, as well as prevention and control measures.