Pulse-like ground motion observed during the 6 February 2023 MW7.8 Pazarcık Earthquake (Kahramanmaraş, SE Türkiye)

Wu F., Xie J., An Z., Lyu C., Taymaz T., IRMAK T. S., ...More

Earthquake Science, vol.36, no.4, pp.328-339, 2023 (ESCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 36 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.eqs.2023.05.005
  • Journal Name: Earthquake Science
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.328-339
  • Keywords: 2023MW7.8 Pazarcık Earthquake, predominant period, pulse-like ground motion, response spectrum
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, we analyzed 100 three-component strong ground motion records observed within 200 km of the causative fault of the 6 February 2023 MW7.8 Pazarcık (Kahramanmaraş) Earthquake in SE Türkiye. The wavelet method was utilized to identify and analyze the characteristics of pulse-like ground motions in the near-fault region, while considering the uncertainty of the pulse orientation during the analysis. Our investigation focused on the effects of the focal mechanism and rupture process on the spatial distribution, pulse orientation, and maximum pulse direction of the observed pulse-like ground motion. We also analyzed the amplitude and period of the observed ground pulses and the effect of long-period amplification on the ground motion response spectra. Our results indicated the following: (1) A total of 21 typical ground velocity pulses were observed during this earthquake, exhibiting complex characteristics due to the influence of the strike-slip mechanism and rupture directivity. Most ground pulses (17 out of 21) were recorded within 20 km of the fault, in a wide range of orientations, including normal and parallel to the fault direction. The waveforms exhibited unidirectional features, indicating the effects of left-lateral fault slip. Distinct pulses observed more than 20 km from the fault were mainly oriented normal to the fault. The waveforms were bidirectional with double- or multi-round trips as a result of rupture directivity. (2) The amplitudes of the observed pulses ranged from 30.5 to 220.0 cm/s, with the largest peak velocity of 220.0 cm/s observed at Station 3138. The pulse periods ranged from 2.3 to 14.5 s, with the longest pulse period of 14.5 s observed at Station 3116. The amplitude and period of the pulses observed during this earthquake were comparable to those of similar-magnitude global earthquakes. The amplitude of the pulses decreased significantly with increasing fault distance, whereas the pulse period was not significantly affected by the fault distance. (3) Compared with non-pulse records, the velocity pulse records had a pronounced amplification effect on the acceleration response spectra near the pulse period, with factors ranging from 2.1 to 5.8. The larger velocity pulses also significantly amplified the velocity response spectra, particularly over the long periods. This significant amplification effect of the pulses on the response spectra leads to empirical models underestimating the long-period earthquake ground motion.