Fortification of dark chocolate with spray dried black mulberry (Morus nigra) waste extract encapsulated in chitosan-coated liposomes and bioaccessability studies

Gultekin-Ozguven M., KARADAG A., DUMAN S., OZKAL B., Özçelik B.

FOOD CHEMISTRY, vol.201, pp.205-212, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 201
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.01.091
  • Journal Name: FOOD CHEMISTRY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.205-212
  • Keywords: Liposome, Chitosan, Encapsulation, Spray drying, Dark chocolate, Black mulberry waste, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, STABILITY, ANTHOCYANINS
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Fine-disperse anionic liposomes containing black mulberry (Morus nigra) extract (BME) were prepared by high pressure homogenization at 25,000 psi. Primary liposomes were coated with cationic chitosan (0.4, w/v%) using the layer-by-layer depositing method and mixed with maltodextrin (MD) (20, w/v%) prior to spray drying. After that, spray dried liposomal powders containing BME were added to chocolates with alkalization degrees (pH 4.5, 6, 7.5) at conching temperatures of 40 degrees C, 60 degrees C, and 80 degrees C. The results showed that, compared to spray dried extract, chitosan coated liposomal powders provided better protection of anthocyanin content in both increased temperature and pH. In addition, encapsulation in liposomes enhanced in vitro bioaccessability of anthocyanins. Chocolate was fortified with encapsulated anthocyanins maximum 76.8% depending on conching temperature and pH. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.