Thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes were fabricated by interfacial polymerization of a polyamide (PA) layer on the shell side of hollow fiber membrane supports. TiO2 nanoparticle loadings in the thin-film layer were 0.01, 0.05, and 0.20 wt %. Nanoparticle-free PA thin-film composite (TFC) membranes served as the comparative basis. The TFN membranes were characterized in terms of the chemical composition, structure, and surface properties of the separation layer. Incorporating nanoTiO(2) improved membrane permeability up to 12.6-fold. During preliminary laboratory-scale evaluation, TFN membranes showed lower salt rejection but higher TOC rejection in comparisons with the corresponding values for TFC controls. Based on the performance in lab-scale tests, TFN membranes with 0.01 wt % nanoTiO(2) loading were selected for an evaluation at the pilot scale with synthetic surface water as the feed. While the permeate flux during long-term pilot-scale operation gradually decreased for TFC membranes, TFN membranes had a higher initial permeate flux that gradually increased with time. The TOC rejection by TFN and TFC membranes was comparable. We conclude that TFN membranes show promise for full-scale surface water treatment applications. (c) 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2019, 136, 48205.