Omnipotent dark energy: A phenomenological answer to the Hubble tension


Adil S. A., Akarsu Ö., Di Valentino E., Nunes R. C., Özülker E., Sen A. A., ...More

Physical Review D, vol.109, no.2, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 109 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1103/physrevd.109.023527
  • Journal Name: Physical Review D
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Chemical Abstracts Core, INSPEC, zbMATH
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

This paper introduces the class of omnipotent dark energy (DE) models characterized by nonmonotonic energy densities that are capable of attaining negative values with corresponding equation of state parameters featuring phantom divide line (PDL) crossings and singularities. These nontrivial features are phenomenologically motivated by findings of previous studies that reconstruct cosmological functions from observations, and the success of extensions of ΛCDM, whose actual or effective DE density is omnipotent, in alleviating the observational discordance within ΛCDM. As an example, we focus on one embodiment of omnipotent DE, viz. the DE parametrization introduced in Di Valentino et al. [Dark energy with phantom crossing and the H0 tension, Entropy 23, 404 (2021)ENTRFG1099-430010.3390/e23040404] (DMS20). By updating and extending the datasets used in the original paper where it was introduced, we confirm the effectiveness of DMS20 in alleviating the observational discrepancies. Additionally, we uncover that its negative DE density feature, importance of which was not previously investigated, plays a crucial role in alleviating the tensions, along with the PDL crossing feature that the parametrization presupposes. In particular, we find that there is a positive correlation between the H0 parameter and the scale (ap) at which DE density transitions from negative to positive, in agreement with previous studies that incorporate this transition feature. For our full dataset, the model yields H0=70.05±0.64 (68% CL) relaxing the H0 tension with a preference of crossing to negative DE densities (ap>0 at 99% CL), along with the constraint am=0.922-0.035+0.041 on the scale of the presupposed PDL crossing.