The sediments in Lake Acigol, located in SW Anatolia, Turkey, were formed under tectono-sedimentary events. REE geochemical investigations of the Lake Acigol sediments, from surface and shallow core sediments at different depths (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm) are presented to clarify the characteristics of REE and the nature of source rocks in the lake sediments' and to deduce their paleoenvironmental proxies. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of these sediments are shown as light enrichment in LREE and flat HREE with a negative Eu anomaly that is close to the continental collision basin (CCB) in its profile; this is not comparable with PAAS and UCC. Inorganic detrital materials control the REE characteristics of the Lake Acigol sediments and these sediments were accumulated in oxic and dysoxic depositional conditions and/or at passive margins derived from oceanic island arc rocks. They were affected by low chemical weathering, either at the original source or during transport, before deposition under arid or subtropical humid climatic conditions. In addition, we used GIS techniques (such as Inverse Distance Weighted (IOW) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR)) to investigate the spatial interpolation and spatial correlation of the REEs from the lake surface sediments in Lake Acigol and its surrounding lithological units. GIS techniques showed that the lithological units (e.g., Hayrettin Formation) north of Lake Acigol have high REE contents; however, Eu/Eu* values were higher in some lake surface sediments than in lithological units, and that refers to a negative Eu-anomaly. Therefore, Lake Acigol sediments are derived from the weathered products, mainly from local, highly basic bedrock around the lake from the Archean crust. The chronology of Lake Acigol sediment was conducted using the Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model. Using the CRS methods for the calculation of sedimentation rate, we obtained a 0.012 g/cm(2)/year value which is an average value for the first 20 cm depth of this lake. The core activity profiles of Pb-210 and Cs-137 were measured to estimate the age of the sediments; we observed activities of 8.08 +/- 5.5 Bq/kg for Pb-210 and 0.86 +/- 0.6 Bq/kg for Cs-137. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.