With the rapid urban development in China, urbanization has brought more and more pressure on the ecological environment. As one of the most dynamic, open, and innovative regions in China, the eco-environmental issues in the Yangtze River Delta have attracted much attention. This paper takes the central region of the Yangtze River Delta as the research object, through building the index system of urbanization and ecological environment based on statistical data and two new indicators (fraction of vegetation coverage and surface urban heat island intensity) extracted from remote sensing images, uses the Entropy-TOPSIS method to complete the comprehensive assessment, and then analyzes the coupling coordination degree between the urbanization and ecological environment and main obstacle factors. The results showed that the coupling coordination degree in the study region generally shows an upward trend from 0.604 in 2008 to 0.753 in 2017, generally changing from an imbalanced state towards a basically balanced state. However, regional imbalance of urbanization and ecological environment always exists, which is mainly affected by social urbanization, economic urbanization, landscape urbanization, pollution loading and resource consumption. Finally, on the basis of the obstacle factor analysis, some specific suggestions for promoting the coordinated development of the Yangtze River Delta are put forward.