A new catalyst (colemanite) for coal-to-liquid technology; a case study for the liquefaction of Elbistan Lignite: the effect of colemanite and Fe2O3 catalyst blending

Koyunoglu C., KARACA H.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY, vol.44, no.60, pp.32095-32100, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


In this study, the colemanite (a natural calcium borate mineral, NCBM) and Fe2O3 used as a catalyst on the liquefaction of Elbistan Lignite (EL, which has the most reserves in the east of Turkey). The liquefaction experiments were carried out at the reaction temperature of 400 degrees C, the reaction time of 90 min, the solvent/solid ratio of 3/1, stirring speed of 400 rpm, and initial nitrogen gas pressure of 20 bar. Fe2O3 and colemanite were together prepared as a new catalyst. Research has been made the recent observation that the highest liquefaction product yields, especially from a series of valuable fractions, obtained, with the highest mineral content of lignite. According to that model colemanite mixed with Fe2O3 to decide if the mineral content effect on total conversion if mineral substances added separately from coal. Fe2O3 selected as the most suitable catalyst type. To understand how to affect colemanite (as an economical catalyst source and also has high reserves in Turkey) as a catalyst on the liquefaction of EL with waste paper. The experiment conditions fixed and so compared due to the total conversion values. Unlike previous studies, this study was 67.1% of the total fluid conversion without catalyst, but this value increased to 77.6% when 15% NCBM catalyst was used. The total conversion was up to 83.8% with the catalyst concentration of 3% Fe2O3. On the other hand, when only 3% of Fe2O3 was used, the total conversion was only 75%. As a result, the mixture of NCBM and Fe2O3 increased the liquefaction efficiency by 15% by the synergistic effect. (C) 2019 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.