In this work (part I), we establish the 1D unified equations of a functionally graded piezoceramic beam from the 3D equations of piezoelectricity in both differential and variational forms. The equations of the beam, including a theorem of uniqueness, are obtained using a unified variational principle together with a kinematic-based product method of reduction. In part II, the free vibrations of the beam are considered and the basic properties of eigenvalues are examined. In part III, the equations are derived for the beam under mechanical and electrical bias. Furthermore, a solution for a piezoceramic torsion problem is given.