In this study, the complex wastewaters/effluents discharged to coastal regions of Turkey and Greece were sampled, and various toxicity tests were applied. The bioassays used included the assessment of the luminescence inhibition of the bacterium Vibrio fisheri, the photosynthesis inhibition (C-14 uptake rate) and growth inhibition of the algal species Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and the mortality of the crustacean Artemia franciscana and rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. Additionally, "neutral red retention" and "filtration rate" sublethal biomarker techniques were performed by utilizing the mussel species Mytilus galloproviancialis, inhabiting the points of discharges in Turkey. All discharges tested were found to be acutely toxic to R tricornutum and slightly toxic to V fisheri, A. franciscana, and B. plicatilis. Test results showed that the 14C uptake rate toxicity test was the most sensitive one among the other bioassays. The biomarker results showed that the health status of mussels in the coastal areas decreased significantly, indicating the pollution of the receiving waters in Turkey. The conclusions drawn highlight the necessity for an intesive ecotoxicological monitoring scheme that will incorporate the most suitable bioassays and biomarkers to adequately contribute to the upgrading and maintenance of the ecological quality of the coastal waters in Greece and in Turkey.