Regional Innovation Performances in Turkey

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Özen B. S., Baycan T.

SUSTAINABILITY, vol.14, no.16, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 16
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/su141610035
  • Journal Name: SUSTAINABILITY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Aerospace Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: regional innovation systems, regional innovation performance, Markov Chain, Turkey, LAND-USE CHANGE, MARKOV ANALYSIS, SYSTEMS
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The purpose of this study is to provide a temporal dynamic analysis of transitions of the regions in Turkey from one state of innovative performance to another by using successive Markov Chains. Regarding the intellectual assets, consisting of the patent, utility model, trademark and design applications, Markov Chains have revealed that there are regional disparities (between i. regions located in the east and west of the country, ii. metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions, iii. high-developed and relatively less-developed regions). Results show that metropolitan regions have higher performances. Innovation leaders which take place in all indicators and time periods in terms of applications are Adana, Ankara, Bursa, Eskisehir, Istanbul, Izmir, Kayseri, Kocaeli, Konya and Manisa regions. It is explicitly distinct that Istanbul leads in the innovation performances for each variable in all time periods. In contrast, regions with the lowest innovation performances are Agri, Artvin, Bingol, Bitlis, Erzincan, Hakkari, Kars, Mus, Siirt, Tunceli, Bayburt, Bartin, Ardahan, Igdir and Kilis. In addition to having the lowest innovation performances, these regions are identified by state policies as 'priority regions in development' or 'state of emergency regions'.