A Comparative Study of 2D and 3D Finite Element Analysis for the Estimation of Piled Raft Foundation Performance

Colak B., Yalçın Dayıoğlu A., Özüdoğru T. Y., Hatipoğlu M.

2023 Geo-Congress: Sustainable Infrastructure Solutions from the Ground Up - Geotechnical Data Analysis and Computation, California, United States Of America, 26 - 29 March 2023, vol.2023-March, pp.163-171 identifier

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Volume: 2023-March
  • Doi Number: 10.1061/9780784484692.017
  • City: California
  • Country: United States Of America
  • Page Numbers: pp.163-171
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This study aims to evaluate the load-settlement behavior of five different piled raft foundation case studies using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) finite element analyses. Hydre Park Barracks in London and Messeturm, Torhaus, Westend, and the Skyper Tower in Frankfurt are five well-instrumented and monitored buildings with piled raft foundations. Their foundation systems were modeled via PLAXIS 2D and 3D software, and the computed load settlement behavior including maximum and differential settlement along with the pile loads and bending moments were compared with the field measurements. The results indicate that 3D models predict the load settlement behavior more accurately compared with 2D models, particularly on structures with a non-symmetrical pile layout. Furthermore, it is also concluded that while 3D finite element analysis yields more accurate results in expense of complexity of model setup and computational time, 2D models provide conservative results with simplicity and faster computation.