Growth and Characterization of Stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnS4 Crystal Using Vertical Bridgman Technique

Peksu E., Terlemezoglu M., PARLAK M., Karaağaç H.

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, vol.219, no.3, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 219 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/pssa.202100595
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Chemical Abstracts Core, Compendex, INSPEC
  • Keywords: conductivity, Cu2ZnSnS4, mobility, SOLAR-CELL, THIN-FILMS, PHASE-EQUILIBRIA
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) single phase crystals are successfully grown in a single-zone vertical furnace by Bridgman technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy measurements are employed to investigate the structural properties of the grown crystals, which verifies the formation of mono-phase CZTS crystals with kesterite structure. The energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) indicates the growth of CZTS single phase crystals with a nearly stoichiometric chemical composition. The carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity of the crystals are determined from Hall Effect measurements. At room temperature, the respective values are found to be 4.0 x 10(15) cm(-3), 1.0 cm(2) Vs(-1), and 1540 omega cm. The activation energies for the acceptor levels are also determined using the temperature-dependent hole concentration measurement. Cu-Zn-antisite originated acceptor level with activation energies of approximate to 121 meV is identified in a nearly stoichiometric kesterite structure.