Hydrogel membranes (HMs) are defined and applied as hydrated porous media constructed of hydrophilic polymers for a broad range of applications. Fascinating physiochemical properties, unique porous architecture, water-swollen features, biocompatibility, and special water content dependent transport phenomena in semipermeable HMs make them appealing constructs for various applications from wastewater treatment to biomedical fields. Water absorption, mechanical properties, and viscoelastic features of three-dimensional (3D) HM networks evoke the extracellular matrix (ECM). On the other hand, the porous structure with controlled/uniform pore-size distribution, permeability/selectivity features, and structural/chemical tunability of HMs recall membrane separation processes such as desalination, wastewater treatment, and gas separation. Furthermore, supreme physiochemical stability and high ion conductivity make them promising to be utilised in the structure of accumulators such as batteries and supercapacitors. In this review, after summarising the general concepts and production processes for HMs, a comprehensive overview of their applications in medicine, environmental engineering, sensing usage, and energy storage/conservation is well-featured. The present review concludes with existing restrictions, possible potentials, and future directions of HMs.