Stopping power and dose calculations with analytical and Monte Carlo methods for protons and prompt gamma range verification

Usta M., Tufan M. Ç., Aydın G., Bozkurt A.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, vol.897, pp.106-113, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


In this study, we have performed the calculations stopping power, depth dose, and range verification for proton beams using dielectric and Bethe–Bloch theories and FLUKA, Geant4 and MCNPX Monte Carlo codes. In the framework, as analytical studies, Drude model was applied for dielectric theory and effective charge approach with Roothaan–Hartree–Fock charge densities was used in Bethe theory. In the simulations different setup parameters were selected to evaluate the performance of three distinct Monte Carlo codes. The lung and breast tissues were investigated are considered to be related to the most common types of cancer throughout the world. The results were compared with each other and the available data in literature. In addition, the obtained results were verified with prompt gamma range data. In both stopping power values and depth-dose distributions, it was found that the Monte Carlo values give better results compared with the analytical ones while the results that agree best with ICRU data in terms of stopping power are those of the effective charge approach between the analytical methods and of the FLUKA code among the MC packages. In the depth dose distributions of the examined tissues, although the Bragg curves for Monte Carlo almost overlap, the analytical ones show significant deviations that become more pronounce with increasing energy. Verifications with the results of prompt gamma photons were attempted for 100–200 MeV protons which are regarded important for proton therapy. The analytical results are within 2%–5% and the Monte Carlo values are within 0%–2% as compared with those of the prompt gammas.