In this study, polyvinyl alcohol/organically modified montmorillonite (HDA/MMT; organoclay) composite was prepared for the intercalation processes. Firstly, the rheological behavior of aqueous montmorillonite dispersions was investigated as a function of solid content. Hexadecylamine (HDA) was added to the montmorillonite dispersion (2%, w/w) in different concentrations in the range of 5 X 10(-4) - 9 X 10(-3) mmol/L. The basal spacing of the organoclay (OMMT) was studied by X-ray diffraction. The FTIR spectra are obtained from the modified montmorillonite products, which revealed the characteristic absorbencies after treatment with HDA. HDA/MMT/PVA composite, which was produced by the reaction of 1 wt % PVA solution with organoclay complex, is characterized by the rheology, electrokinetic, XRD, FTIR, and SEM techniques. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.