Seven years of postseismic deformation following the 1999, M=7.4 and M=7.2, Izmit-Duzce, Turkey earthquake sequence

Ergintav S., MCCLUSKY S., Hearn E., REILINGER R., CAKMAK R., HERRING T., ...More

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SOLID EARTH, vol.114, 2009 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


We report the results of nearly 7 years of postseismic deformation measurements using continuously recorded and survey mode GPS observations for the 1999 Izmit-Duzce earthquake sequence. Resolvable, time-dependent postseismic changes to the preearthquake interseismic velocity field extend at least as far as the continuous GPS station in Ankara, similar to 200 km southeast of the Izmit rupture. Seven years after the earthquake sequence, the relative postseismic velocity across the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) reaches similar to 10-12 mm/a, roughly 50% of the steady state interseismic rate, with the highest postseismic velocities within 40 km of the coseismic ruptures. We use a sequence of logarithmic time functions to fit GPS site motions. Up to three logarithmic terms with decay constants of 1, 150, and 3500 days are necessary to fit all the transient motion observed at the continuous GPS stations. The first term is required for the component of site motion parallel to the NAF at near-field sites strongly implicating rapid, shallow afterslip. The intermediate and longer-term postseismic velocity components reflect more broadly distributed strain with a symmetric double-couple pattern suggestive of either localized, deep afterslip or viscoelastic relaxation of the upper mantle and/or lower crust. In two areas (including the Marmara Sea) this pattern is superimposed on north-south extension centered on the NAF. We speculate that this extension may result from aseismic dip slip along coseismically weakened faults, driven by the background tectonic stress.