The aim of our study is to compare the structural and biological tolerance of novel Al2O3/3Y-TZP composites with ceria respectively titania addition (5 wt%). Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and XPS results are reported for structural characteristics and surface modifications upon different fluoride treatments. The biocompatibility of the samples was evaluated using an animal model (rabbit). The explants were analyzed at a specific period (6 weeks).The sections of implanted bone area were subjected to histological evaluation. Upon correlating the structural properties and in vivo evaluation, we concluded that the addition of both TiO2 and CeO2 to Al2O3/3Y-TZP implies similar properties and satisfactory biological tolerance. With respect to the surface treatment, qualitative and quantitative results show that the alumina/zirconia with titania addition are more sensitive to fluoride treatment.