Hybrid Use of Externally Embedded FRP Reinforcement for Seismic Retrofitting of Substandard RC Columns

Seyhan E. C., Akkaya Ç., Saribas I., İlki A.

Journal of Composites for Construction, vol.27, no.3, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 27 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1061/jccof2.cceng-3906
  • Journal Name: Journal of Composites for Construction
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Aramid, Carbon, Column, Cyclic, Externally embedded fiber-reinforced polymer, Flexure, Glass, Reinforced concrete, Retrofitting, Seismic
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This paper discussed the effectiveness of the hybrid use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement for the seismic retrofitting of substandard reinforced concrete (RC) columns. Four columns, except for the reference, were retrofitted with externally embedded FRP (EE-FRP) bars in a longitudinal and external FRP jacket in the transverse directions. The test parameter was the configuration of the FRP bars that were used for retrofitting along the longitudinal direction (e.g., single or hybrid use of different types of FRP bars, such as aramid (AFRP), glass (GFRP), or carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP). The test results indicated that a significant enhancement in the lateral load capacity (≤198% in the unstrengthened column) could be achieved through the hybrid use of FRP bars under reversed cyclic lateral displacement and a constant axial load without a significant sacrifice in deformability. In addition, the test results yielded insights into the strain (E) capacities of longitudinal FRP bars in tension and their contribution to compression resistance under reversed cyclic lateral loading conditions. In addition, an analytical study was conducted to predict the cyclic flexural behavior in substandard RC columns that were retrofitted through the single or hybrid use of EE-FRP bars that considered the debonding behavior of longitudinal CFRP bars with a smooth surface.