Ore-forming mechanism and its relationship with deformational and metamorphic episodes at Haimur gold mine, Nubian Shield, Egypt

Abd El Monsef M., Khalıl A. A. A.

Geological Magazine, vol.158, no.3, pp.518-536, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 158 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1017/s0016756820000655
  • Journal Name: Geological Magazine
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, Environment Index, Geobase
  • Page Numbers: pp.518-536
  • Keywords: arsenopyrite thermometry, Egypt, fluid inclusions, Haimur gold deposit, metamorphism, Najd shearing
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The Haimur area represents the central part of the Wadi Allaqi region in the southern block of the Egyptian Eastern Desert near Nasser Lake and the Nile valley. It is made up of ophiolitic assemblage comprising serpentinite and talc carbonate, listwenite, metagabbro/amphibolite and metabasalt and island arc assemblages. The orogenic gold deposits in the Haimur area occur in the form of smoky/white sulphide-bearing quartz / quartz-carbonate veins or lenses cutting through the listwenite zone-related rocks. The NE-trending auriferous veins were formed due to an extensional to transtensional shearing related to NW Najd shear tectonics. Gold was observed in association with late-pyrite and chalcopyrite paragenetically formed in the gold phase (second phase), while the first phase is the sulphide phase including early-pyrite and arsenopyrite. Arsenopyrite was formed during early metamorphic recrystallization at a high-temperature range between 405 and 512 °C. However, gold was formed at lower temperature through retrograde metamorphism. Three types of fluid inclusions have been recognized: aqueous (type-I), mixed aqueous-carbonic (type-II) and hydrocarbonic (type-III). The P-T conditions of trapping were obtained from the isochore lines of intersection between T = 300-320 °C and pressure range of 60-180 MPa. The Haimur gold deposit was supposed to be derived from metamorphic fluids created by dehydration and decarbonation of ophiolitic mélange assemblages and volcano-sedimentary rocks, in which the gold was transported as Au(HS)2- complexes and precipitated in reduced environment. The strong linkage between the deformation and metamorphism triggered gold deposition in structurally favourable sites related to the Najd fault system.