Butyl rubber as a macro-cross-linker in the preparation of a shape-memory and self-healing polymer

Tavşanlı B., Bilici C., Sungur P., İDE S., Okay O.

JOURNAL OF RHEOLOGY, vol.66, no.6, pp.1367-1378, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 66 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1122/8.0000414
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Compendex, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC, zbMATH
  • Page Numbers: pp.1367-1378
  • Keywords: Butyl rubber macro-cross-linker, n-octadecyl acrylate, IPNs, self-healing, shape memory, N-OCTADECYL ACRYLATE, HYDROGELS, TOUGH
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Recently, a simple strategy was developed for preparing interconnected interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on butyl rubber (IIR) and poly(n-octadecyl acrylate) (PC18A). Solvent-free UV polymerization of n-octadecyl acrylate (C18A) monomer in the melt of IIR at ambient temperature resulted in IPNs with self-healing and shape-memory functions. Here, we demonstrate that the use of IIR grafted with acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, and 10-undecenoic acid instead of unmodified IIR provides a significant improvement in the mechanical properties of IPNs. Differential scanning calorimetry, small-angle x-ray scattering, and wide-angle x-ray scattering analysis reveal side-by-side packing of C18 side chains of PC18A to form lamellar crystals with a melting temperature T-m between 46 and 52 ?. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicates the existence of quasispherical nanoparticles composed of crystalline domains, which are dispersed in a continuous interpenetrating rubber-PC18A matrix. This microstructure provides them a complete self-recovery behavior induced by heating and an efficient shape-memory function. IPNs exhibit around tenfold higher chemical cross-link density as compared to those prepared from the native IIR, reflecting the effect of pendant vinyl groups on the extent of covalent interconnections between the IIR and PC18A components. The type of the grafted monomers significantly affects the mechanical performance of IPNs, which can be explained with the individual contributions of chemical and physical cross-links to the total cross-link density. The amount of the grafted rubbers in IPN could be further increased up to 80 wt. % by the incorporation of toluene into the reaction system, resulting in IPNs with a wide range of tunable thermal and mechanical properties. (C) 2022 The Society of Rheology.