Single-frame super resolution of remote-sensing images by convolutional neural networks

Tuna C., Ünal G., Sertel E.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REMOTE SENSING, vol.39, no.8, pp.2463-2479, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


Super resolution (SR) refers to generation of a high-resolution (HR) image from a decimated, blurred, low-resolution (LR) image set, which can be either a single-frame or multi-frame that contains a collection of images acquired from slightly different views of the same observation area. In this study, two convolutional neural network (CNN)-based deep learning techniques are adapted in single-frame SR to increase the resolution of remote sensing (RS) images by a factor of 2, 3, and 4. In order to both preserve the colour information and speed up the algorithm, first an intensity hue saturation (IHS) transform is utilized and the SR techniques are only applied to the intensity channel of the images. Colour information is then restored with an inverse IHS transformation. We demonstrate the results of the proposed method on RS images acquired from Satellites Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) or Earth-observing satellites and Pleiades satellites with different spatial resolution. First synthetic LR images are created by downsampling, then structural similarity (SSIM) Index, peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Erreur Relative Globale Adimensionnelle de Synthese (ERGAS) values are calculated for a quantitative evaluation of the methods. Finally, the method, with better performance results, is tested within a real scenario, that is, with original LR images as the input. The obtained HR images demonstrated visible qualitative enhancements.