In the drive toward the development of efficient and stable inorganic semiconductor materials with broadband solar absorption ability to induce various photochemical processes is a highly attractive research field. In this study, two-dimensional (2D) few-layer black phosphorus (BP) exfoliated in a solvent is utilized as photocatalyst to initiate the polymerization of various monomers under visible and near-IR (NIR) light irradiation. Upon the light exposure, few-layer BP generates excited electrons and holes, which undergo electron transfer reactions with the onium salts to form free radicals capable of initiating free radical polymerization. Among the onium salts tested, aryldiazonium salt was found to be the most efficient in the photopolymerization process owing to its favorable reduction potential with the conduction edge potential of BP. The presented strategy also provides the possibility for the in situ preparation of BP-polymer composite materials.