Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthetic receptors having specific cavities intended for a template molecule with a retention mechanism that depends on molecular recognition of the targeted constituent. They were initially established for the detection of minor molecules including drugs, pesticides, or pollutants. One of the most remarkable areas where MIPs have potential utilization is in food analysis, especially in terms of volatile compounds which are found in very low concentrations in foods but play a crucial role for consumer preference and acceptance. In recent years, these polymers have been used extensively for sensing volatile organic and off-odor compounds in terms of food quality for selective high-extraction purposes. This review first summarizes the basic principles and production processes of MIPs. Second, their recent applications in the separation, identification, and quantification of volatile and off-odor compounds in food samples are elucidated.