Filtration performance and fouling of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in the treatment of dairy industry wastewater were investigated. Two series of experiments were performed. The first one involved a NF membrane (TFC-S) for treating the chemical-biological treatment plant effluents. The second one used a RO membrane (TFC-HR) for treating the original effluents from the dairy industry. The permeate flux was higher at higher transmembrane pressures and higher feed flowrates. The curves of permeate flux exhibited a slower increase while the feed flowrate decreased and the pressure increased. Membrane fouling resulted in permeate flux decline with increasing the feed COD concentration. Furthermore, the flux decline due to the COD increase was found higher at higher pressures for both NF and RO membranes.