Lignans are widely distributed in nature and exhibit various activities, including antitumor, antiviral, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiulcer, antiallergen, antiplatelet and antiosteoporotic activities. So far, Taxus species have received a great deal of interest in regard to their taxane diterpenes rather than their lignans. This chapter will review lignan biosynthesis and recent strategies in the synthesis of lignans and provide an overview of isolation and structural elucidation studies of all Taxus lignans, along with their biological activities. About 50 lignans, including neolignans and a few terpenolignans, isolated from eight Taxus species, are presented herein. Recent studies on the activities of lignans, particularly Taxus lignans, are outlined.