A comprehensive hydrological model, like the storm water management model (SWMM), has been widely used for rainfall-runoff simulation. In recent years, simple and effective modern modeling techniques have also brought great attention to the prediction of runoff with rainfall input. A comparative case study between SWMM and a presently developed fuzzy logic model for the predictions of total runoff within the watershed of Cascina Scala, Pavia in Italy is presented. A data set of 23 events from 2000 to 2003 including with the total rainfall and total runoff are adopted to train fuzzy logic parameters. Other data (1990-1995) with detailed time variations of rainfall and runoff are available for the setup and calibration of SWMM for runoff modeling. Among the 1990-1995 data, 35 independent rainfall events are selected to test the prediction performance of the SWMM and fuzzy logic models by comparing the predicted total runoffs with measured data. Comparisons and performance analyses in terms of the root-mean-squared error and coefficient of efficiency are made between the SWMM and the fuzzy logic model. The predicted total runoffs from either the SWMM or the fuzzy logic model are found to agree reasonably well with the measured data. For large rainfall events, the fuzzy logic model generally outperforms the SWMM unless the modification of the impervious ratio is applied to improve the SWMM results. However, the SWMM can produce the time varying hydrograph whereas fuzzy logic is subject to limitation of the methodology and is unable to generate such an output. DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0000419. (C) 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.