Globalization enabled people to learn about the world in which they live in than ever before in the past. Today's global culture is determined by a rapidly growing communication network and advancing technologies. As a consequence, sustainability of local natural environments and cultural heritages becomes a global issue, while local sites become learning grounds for global communities. As one of the best example of man's symbiotic relationship with nature Cappadocia, located in Central Anatolia, offers many possibilities and lessons for underground habitation. This paper aims to discuss the ancient settlement of Uchisar in Cappadocia unique for its creative subterranean space use. The focal points of discussion are physical geography, dominating residential patterns of underground space use and potentials for integrating innovative techniques of documentation and fortification for the sustainability of the existing residential tissue. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.