International Advanced Researches and Engineering Journal, vol.2, no.2, pp.200-207, 2018 (Refereed Journals of Other Institutions)
All living creatures tend to sense the changes in their habitat and have to comply with them to survive. At first, the basics of the biosensor theory began with in vitro studies based on sensing ability of living beings. Then, scientists have started to use this ability in some devices. Lately, these devices have been smaller and smaller. They are in used for medical, chemical, food and some other sciences to make easier, cheaper, accurate and rapid detection of specific reactions, compounds, enzymes, cells according to their electrical, thermal or optical signals. Lastly, the 4th generation of biosensor technology, as lived now, has started with the developments of Micro, Nano or BioNano Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS/NEMS/BioNEMS), nanotechnology and biotechnology that are expected to have lots of features. Furthermore molecular recognition elements like aptamers which are synthetic oligonucleotide ligands against various target molecules ranging from small ions to large proteins, toxins and other analytes as receptors. The studies on using aptamers conjugated with nanomaterials to fabricate and design novel biosensors appear to continue due to various advantages such as frequency of usage, practical use and time-saving.