Environment-friendly cornstarch and tannin-based wood adhesives for interior particleboard production as an alternative to formaldehyde-based wood adhesives

Oktay S., Kızılcan N., Bengu B.

PIGMENT & RESIN TECHNOLOGY, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1108/prt-06-2022-0075
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Adhesives, Environmentally friendly, Sugar, Cornstarch, Low formaldehyde content, Mimosa tannin, EMISSION, RESIN, SCAVENGERS, MIMOSA
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Purpose In industrial applications, formaldehyde-based wood adhesives have been used extensively because of their low costs and high reactivity. However, their real-world applications are hindered by some main bottlenecks, especially the formaldehyde emission and usage of nonrenewable raw materials. The purpose of this study is the development of sustainable and formaldehyde-free wood adhesive formulation. Design/methodology/approach In this study, starch and tannin-based wood adhesive were synthesized. Chemical structures and thermal properties of the prepared bio-based resin formulations were elucidated by using Fourier transform infrared and differential scanning calorimetry analysis, respectively. Laboratory scale particleboard production was carried out to determine the performance of the developed resin formulations. Obtained results were evaluated in dry medium (P2) according to European norms EN 312 (2010). Furthermore, the board formaldehyde content was determined by using the perforator method according to the European Norm EN 12460-5. Findings The results show that the improved starch and tannin-based wood adhesives were successful in their adhesive capacity, and the formaldehyde content of the final product was obtained as low as 0.75 mg/100 g. This paper highlights that the presented adhesive formulations could be a potential eco-friendly and cost-effective alternative to the formaldehyde-based wood adhesives for interior particleboard production. Research limitations/implications Starch-based resins in the liquid form needed to be continuously mixed throughout their shelf life to prevent the starch from settling because it was not possible to dissolve the precipitated starch again after a while. For this reason, starch was given to the chips in powder form while preparing the particleboard. Practical implications In conclusion, this study shows that the developed bio-based resin formulations have a high potential to be used for producing interior-grade particleboards instead of commercial formaldehyde-based wood adhesives because the obtained results generally satisfied the interior grade particleboard requirements according to European norms EN 312, P2 class (2010). In addition, it was determined that the produced boards had significantly low formaldehyde content. The low formaldehyde content of the final boards was not because of the resin but because of the natural structure of the wood raw material, press parameters and environmental factors. Social implications The developed bio-based resin system made it possible to obtain boards with significantly low formaldehyde content compared to commercial resins. Originality/value The developed bio-based resin formulation made it possible to produce laboratory-scale board prototypes at lower press factors and board densities compared to their counterparts.