Spatial modulation (SM), in which multiple antennas are used to convey information besides the conventional M-ary signal constellations, is a new multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission technique, which has recently been proposed as an alternative to V-BLAST (vertical Bell Labs layered space-time). In this paper, a novel MIMO transmission scheme, called spatial modulation with trellis coding (SM-TC), is proposed. Similar to the conventional trellis coded modulation (TCM), in this scheme, a trellis encoder and an SM mapper are jointly designed to take advantage of the benefits of both. A soft decision Viterbi decoder, which is fed with the soft information supplied by the optimal SM decoder, is used at the receiver. A pairwise error probability (PEP) upper bound is derived for the SM-TC scheme in uncorrelated quasi-static Rayleigh fading channels. From the PEP upper bound, code design criteria are given and then used to obtain new 4-, 8- and 16-state SM-TC schemes using quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) and 8-ary phase-shift keying (8-PSK) modulations for 2, 3 and 4 bits/s/Hz spectral efficiencies. It is shown via computer simulations and also supported by a theoretical error performance analysis that the proposed SM-TC schemes achieve significantly better error performance than the classical space-time trellis codes and coded V-BLAST systems at the same spectral efficiency, yet with reduced decoding complexity.