Ground Deformation Analysis of Bolvadin (W. Turkey) by Means of Multi-Temporal InSAR Techniques and Sentinel-1 Data

Imamoglu M., Kahraman F., Çakır Z., Balık Şanlı F.

REMOTE SENSING, vol.11, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/rs11091069
  • Journal Name: REMOTE SENSING
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Surface deformations were observed in Bolvadin, located in the province of Afyon (western Turkey) in the last decade which occurred without any destructive earthquakes. In this study, ground deformation of the Bolvadin region is analyzed by means of multi-temporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) technique with Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. Sentinel-1 data acquired in ascending and descending orbits between October 2014 and October 2018 are processed with the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP) and Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) open source software tools. Deformation velocity maps and line-of-sight (LOS) displacement time series are produced and compared with geology, groundwater level and the water surface area of Eber Lake nearby. Deformation velocity maps reveal significant subsidence in most of the town and surrounding regions, which is confirmed by field observations that show severe damage to the settlements and infrastructure of the town. The most severe subsidence is observed to be in the southern part of Bolvadin with rates up to 35 mm/year, which is characterized by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. Composed of slope debris/talus and conglomerate, the northeastern part of the deforming region experiences a relatively lower rate of subsidence. A strong correlation between LOS displacement time series and groundwater level exists both in the short and long term. Moreover, short term variations in LOS displacement time series also show high similarity with seasonal variations in the water surface area of Eber Lake located a few km southeast of the town. We conclude that the primary cause of subsidence is most probably the overexploitation of groundwater and hydrological changes because of (1) the strong correlation of subsidence with lithological units, (2) the similarity between deformation rate and groundwater level changes, (3) the correspondence of seasonal variations in water surface area and short-term deformation rate oscillations, and (4) the absence of InSAR velocity contrast across the active faults.