Sequential Extraction and Characterization of Essential Oil, Flavonoids, and Pectin from Industrial Orange Waste

Dikmetaş D. N., Devecioğlu D., Karbancıoğlu Güler H. F., Kahveci Karıncaoğlu D.

ACS Omega, vol.9, no.12, pp.14442-14454, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 9 Issue: 12
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acsomega.4c00112
  • Journal Name: ACS Omega
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.14442-14454
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Orange is one of the primary fruits processed into juice and other products worldwide, leading to a vast amount of waste accumulation. Such waste has been considered as an attractive candidate for upcycling to obtain bioactive components remaining. The present study investigated the extraction of essential oil (EO), flavonoids, and pectin from industrial orange waste with a holistic approach. To maximize EO yield and d-limonene concentration, hydrodistillation (HD) conditions were selected to be 5.5 mL water/g solid for 180 min. Remaining solids were further used for flavonoid extraction where conventional solvent, sequential ultrasound + solvent, and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UE) were applied. UE applied for 50 min with 120 mL solvent/g solid yielded the highest total phenolic (TPCs) and total flavonoid contents (TFCs), antioxidant capacity, and hesperidin and neohesperidin concentrations. In terms of TPC, TFC, antioxidant capacity, and antibacterial activity, both EO and flavonoid fractions demonstrated moderate to high bioactivity. At the final step, ethanol precipitation was applied to obtain the pectin that was solubilized in hot water during HD and it was characterized by Fourier transform infrared, degree of esterification, and galacturonic acid content. Practical application: to ensure utilization in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries, this study presents a combined method to obtain several value-added compounds from industrial orange waste. Bioactive EO and flavonoids obtained could have applications in functional food, supplements, or cosmetic formulations, whereas extracted pectin can be used in many formulated foods and drugs.