Impact of Slope Orientation on Inlet Spacing: Gutter Flow Analyses

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ÇAVDAR S., Uyumaz A.

APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL, vol.12, no.21, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 12 Issue: 21
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/app122111196
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: roadway drainage, inlet spacing, gutter flow, HYDRAULIC EFFICIENCY, DRAINAGE, STABILITY, CAPACITY, FIELD, GRATE
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


A roadway's capacity to drain itself is of utmost importance for the safety and comfort of its users. Standing water and any amount of channelized flow on roadways create nuisances to the users, and the extent of encroachment into the lanes and the water-film thickness over the lanes are crucial for motorists with relatively high speed. Guidelines cover a wide range of subjects from size and type of inlets, which capture the channelized flow for conveyance into enclosed drains, to the decision for slope orientation, but the guidelines seem to lack in checking the depth of channelized flow. HEC-22 (the urban drainage design manual of US Department of Transportation) endorses limiting the flow depths to curb height (as if the concern is no longer the roadway users) and fixes the criterion for the inlet spacing (restricted to 90 to 150 m) to maximum allowable flow spreads. This study analyzed the maximum allowable inlet spacing via setting three criteria: fixed maximums to flow depth, spread for the channel flow, and to over-lane water-film thickness. The impact of slope orientation on inlet spacing is tested along with some other factors for roadways of two types (local and highway). The results were graphed for various uniform slope orientations under a wide range of rainfall intensities for the determined inlet spacing values. This was performed by combining a kinematic wave equation solution to dismiss the conditions that lead to hydroplaning depths when using the Rational Method and Manning's equation to obtain water depths and inlet spacings for an inlet of full capture capacity. It is found that the allowable spacing values do not constitute any major restrictions in highway setting (3 m shoulder) in terms of recommended spacing. In the local setting, however, with a maximum spread of 1.8 m, maximum allowable inlet spacing becomes a limitation in many orientations, and slope optimization under such conditions becomes crucial at times when providing the same spacing for two orientations.