An Early Miocene (Early Burdigalian) incised valley-fill was produced through development of an alluvial system during active extension and block rotation in the Mut Basin. Five phases of alluvial activity have been recognized and are linked to specific tectono-stratigraphic factors. The entrenchment phase (phase 1) was a response to a rapid decrease in accommodation caused by a combination of sea-level fall and accelerated tectonism that occurred around the basin during active extension. A lacustrine depositional system that pre-dated entrenchment was abruptly succeeded by an erosional fluvial system. The initial erosion, the entrenchment phase was followed by the deposition of ephemeral meandering fluvial facies and later by high sinuosity sandy meandering fluvial facies. During the aggradational phase (Phase 2), coarser-grained, lower sinuosity meandering river facies were vertically stacked in response to successive periods of fault-block rotation and basinal subsidence. The thickest stratigraphic interval was deposited during this time. Simultaneously in a basinward position, finer-grained distal facies were deposited. The succeeding backfilling phase (Phase 3) was marked by further fault-block rotation and an increase in the catchment area that resulted in higher flow regime and more sediment input. A further increase in accommodation space due to block rotation resulted in the retreat of facies belts, and the deposition of a retrogradational stacked gravelly low-sinuosity meandering facies during the early transgressive phase (Phase 4). In the downstream part of the alluvial valley, fluvio-deltaic and ion-marine transitional facies were deposited and progressively retreated landwards during marine flooding. Phase 5 marks the main interval of Early Miocene marine transgression (a combination of global eustasy and regional epeiric subsidence). During this time, the facies belts within the incised valley-fill were dominated by estuarine and lagoonal facies assemblages, whil the distal parts of the alluvial valley became completely flooded with marine waters. At the end of the transgressive phase, in the uppermost early Burdigalian, the estuarine and lagoonal facies migrated further inland, while shallow-marine sediments (reefal limestones) were deposited in distal parts of the now-drowned valley, blanketing the pre-existing topography. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.