From transpression to transtension: changes in morphology and structure around a bend on the North Anatolian Fault in the Marmara region

Okay A., Tuysuz O., Kaya S.

TECTONOPHYSICS, vol.391, pp.259-282, 2004 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 391
  • Publication Date: 2004
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.tecto.2004.07.016
  • Journal Name: TECTONOPHYSICS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.259-282
  • Keywords: transpression, transtension, North Anatolian Fault, Marmara, morphology, Turkey, SEA REGION, WESTWARD PROPAGATION, NORTHWESTERN TURKEY, SLIP, KINEMATICS, EVOLUTION, DEFORMATION, EARTHQUAKE, BASIN, GPS
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The cast west-trending North Anatolian Fault makes a 17degrees bend in the western Marmara region from a mildly transpressional segment to a strongly transtensional one. We have studied the changes in the morphology and structure around this fault bend using digital elevation models, field structural geology, and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles. The transpression is reflected in the morphology as the Ganos Mountain, a major zone of uplift, 10 kin wide and 35 kin long, elongated parallel to the transpressional Ganos Fault segment west of this bend. Flat-lying Eocene turbidites of the Thrace Basin are folded upwards against this Ganos Fault, forming a monocline with the Ganos Mountain at its steep southern limb and the flat-lying hinterland farther north at the flat limb. The sharp northern margin of the Ganos Mountain coincides closely with the monoclinal axis. The strike of the bedding, and the minor and regional fold axes in the Eocene turbidites in Ganos Mountain are parallel to the trace of the Ganos Fault indicating that these structures, as well as the morphology, have formed by shortening perpendicular to the North Anatolian Fault. The monoclinal structure of Ganes Mountain implies that the North Anatolian Fault dips under this mountain at 50degrees, and this ramp terminates at a decollement at a calculated depth of -8 km. East of this fault bend, the northward dip of the North Anatoxlian Fault is maintained but it has a normal dip-slip component. This has led to the formation of an asymmetric half-graben, the Tekirdag Basin in the western Sea of Marmara, containing a thickness of up to 2.5 km of Pliocene to Recent syn-transform sediments. As the Ganos uplift is translated eastwards from the transpressional to the transtensional zone, it undergoes subsidence by southward tilting. However, a morphological relic of the Ganos uplift is maintained as the steep northern submarine slope of the Tekirdag Basin. The minimum of 3.5 kin of fault-normal shortening in the Ganos Mountain, and the minimum of 40 kin eastward translation of the Ganes uplift indicate that the present fault geometry has existed for at least the last 2 million years. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.