Nanoscale dimensions which are one billionth of a meter reveal a totally different set of tasks. Nanomaterials have unique and specific new features because of the quantum confinement effect caused by the decrease in the dimensions. Nanofabricationmethods contain physical, chemical and biological methods. However, most chemicals are toxic both for the living systems and the environment. This is a limiting factor to use of nanoparticles as commercial products such as drug. Thus, green chemistry has come to the forefront where reduction and detoxification reactions are realized by means of biomaterials such as enzymes, reducing agents that the living systems have. Several nanomaterials such as silver, gold, cadmium, platinum, titanium have been produced through microbial systems and publications are increasing on this field every day. We prepared to this review for new beginners to study about microbial synthesis of nanostructures by examining the latest articles published on using microorganisms in nanomaterial synthesis and applications.