A Variance Model in NRTK-Based Geodetic Positioning as a Function of Baseline Length

Gokdas O., Özlüdemir M. T.

GEOSCIENCES, vol.10, 2020 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 10
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/geosciences10070262
  • Journal Name: GEOSCIENCES
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: geodetic network design, variance modelling, time series, accuracy, precision, baseline length, FKP, VRS, ISKI CORS, CORS-TR, NETWORK RTK, ACCURACY
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This study examines the effect of baseline length on accuracy and precision in Network Real-Time Kinematic (NRTK) positioning and develops an experimental mathematical model to express this effect. The study also measures the performances of the Flaechen Korrektur Parameter (FKP) and Virtual Reference Stations (VRS) methods at different baseline lengths. The study makes use of the stations that form two Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) networks, one of which is local and the other national. Calculations were made to perform various geodetic operations, such as datum transformations between the two networks, identifications of positional velocities, and epoch shifting. BERNESE (v5.2) software was used to identify coordinate values assumed to be true based on International GNSS Service (IGS) products. No significant changes were observed in the RMSE values in baseline lengths of up to 40 km. In contrast, an average linear correlation of 69.2% was determined between precision and baseline length. Measurements were evaluated and tested using the variance model created as a function of the baseline length, in line with the aims of the study, and the results were found to be consistent. Moreover, in an examination of the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and precision values of the FKP and VRS measurements, no significant differences were observed. The mean differences were at the millimetre level.