Foods, vol.12, no.4, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)
The fruits of Rosa pimpinellifolia are rich sources of (poly)phenols, however they are underutilized due to the limited information available. The influence of the pressure, temperature, and co-solvent concentration (aqueous ethanol) of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCO2-aqEtOH) on the extraction yield, total phenolic-, total anthocyanin-, catechin-, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside contents, and total antioxidant activity of black rosehip was investigated simultaneously. The maximum obtained total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents under the optimized extraction conditions (280 bar, 60 °C and 25% ethanol, v/v) were 76.58 ± 4.25 mg gallic acid equivalent and 10.89 ± 1.56 mg cyanidin-3-O-glucoside equivalent per g of the dry fruits, respectively. The optimal extract obtained by SCO2-aqEtOH was compared to two other extraction procedures: ultrasonication using ethanol as solvent (UA-EtOH) and pressurized hot water extraction (PH-H2O). The bioaccessibility and cellular metabolism of the phenolic compounds in the different black rosehip extracts were assessed using an in vitro digestion coupled with a human intestinal Caco-2 cell model. The in vitro digestive stability and cellular uptake of the phenolic compounds had no significant difference among the different extraction methods. The results of this study confirm the efficiency of SCO2-aqEtOH extraction for phenolic compounds and, in particular, for anthocyanins, and could be used to produce new functional food ingredients from black rosehip with high antioxidant power containing both hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds.