This paper presents an application of an optimization based on the Taguchi method for analyzing the deterioration of concrete with different compositions due to freezing and thawing. Effects of four parameters, i.e., water-cement ratio, cement content, amount Of air-entrainment, and curing conditions, on the freeze-thaw resistance of concrete were investigated. The deterioration in concrete during the repeated freeze-thaw cycles were quantitatively evaluated in the light of the experimental measurements taken on length changes. It can be concluded that, within the limits of this work, the most important parameter affecting the freezing resistance of the concrete is the air-entraining admixture (AEA). Non-air-entrained concretes were severely damaged exhibiting substantial scaling after a limited number of freeze-thaw cycles. Damage increases significantly after around 1.5% residual length change (expansion) occurs in the specimens without AEA.