Convergence or Divergence among Business Models of Public Bus Transport Authorities across the Globe: A Fuzzy Approach

Buran B., Erçek M.

SUSTAINABILITY, vol.13, no.19, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 19
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/su131910861
  • Journal Name: SUSTAINABILITY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Aerospace Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: public bus transportation authorities (PBTA), business model, Spherical Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (SF-AHP), convergence, divergence, TECHNOLOGICAL CONVERGENCE, SHARING ECONOMY, INNOVATION, SUSTAINABILITY, SERVICES, POLICY, PATTERNS, MOBILITY, SYSTEMS, DESIGN
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Building on the debate about global convergence or divergence of practices, this study aims to query the viability of a new strategic action tool specifically geared to the interests of public bus transportation authorities (PBTA) around the globe and explore the degree of homogeneity in their responses as well as the possible drivers of them. To answer its research question, the study first offers a generic business model design for a PBTA, which integrates an extended version of the business model canvas with external environmental factors in order to enhance its sustainability. Subsequently, the importance attributions of international transportation experts to different model components are evaluated by using the Spherical Fuzzy AHP method. The model is developed in three hierarchical layers and evaluated by experts from four continents: America, Asia, Australia, and Europe. The results indicate that the expert opinions tend to converge more on the internal components of the model and diverge on the external components, especially regarding economic and technological factors. A strategic response action set is also designed to facilitate the adoption of the model by PBTA. The study not only extends the research on the strategic management of the public bus transportation domain but also contributes to the convergence and divergence debate by offering a reconciliatory duality perspective.