Widespread Neogene volcanism, mainly intermediate and rarely mafic and felsic in composition, was controlled by the extensional tectonic regime in western Turkey. The Karaburun and Cumaovasi volcanics are the cases for understanding the magma source(s) and petrological processes, producing the extension-related mafic and felsic volcanism. The Karaburun volcanics (KV) are mainly oriented north to south in the Karaburun peninsula and span a wide spectrum from basalt (20Ma) to rhyolite (16Ma), and younger trachyte and trachydacites (13Ma). The products of the subaerial silicic volcanism (the Cumaovasi volcanics, CV; 17Ma) which are represented by cluster of rhyolite domes, related pyroclastics occur within the NE-SW trending Çubukludaǧ graben, and intermediate and mafic volcanic rocks are lack in this area. The lavas of the Cumaovasi volcanics are high silica rhyolites and rare dacites which are calc alkaline, peralumious and enriched significantly in LILE. Extremely low Sr, Ba values, extremely Eu depletions and very low LaN/YbN ratios are typical for the rhyolites of CV, similar to the topaz rhyolites. The Karaburun volcanics, with the exception of the minor alkaline basaltic and trachytic lavas, are mainly calc alkaline and metaluminous intermediate lavas. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the KV and dacitic samples of CV are close to each other and range from 0.708 to 0.709; while Sr isotopic ratios of the rhyolites are significantly high and variable (0.724-0.786). 143Nd/144Nd ratios of the CV and KV, except for the alkaline samples, are similar for both sequences vary from 0.51230 to 0.51242.Geological, geochemical, isotopic and radiochronologic data reveal that the KV and CV were formed in extensional tectonic setting, but evolved by different petrological processes in different magma chambers. During the Neogene, underplated mafic magma was injected into the crust and hybridized by mantle and crustal derived materials. Geochemical features and trace element modeling for the mafic members of the KV indicate that they were derived from enriched lithospheric mantle and modified by fractional crystallization from basalt to rhyolite (. Helvaci et al., 2009). Unexpectedly, the felsic lavas from Cumaovasi region have a unique chemical composition, and similar to the extension related rhyolites formed from small magma bodies. Our data reveal that extension related mafic inputs caused crustal anatectic melting and formed felsic melts that rapidly ascended into the upper crust. The Cumaovasi felsic rocks were differentiated into the highly evolved silica-rich melts within the magma chambers trapped near the surface. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.