Entrapment of Black Carrot Anthocyanins by Ionic Gelation: Preparation, Characterization, and Application as a Natural Colorant in Yoghurt

Tavlasoglu M., Özkan G., Çapanoğlu Güven E.

ACS OMEGA, vol.7, pp.32481-32488, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 7
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acsomega.2c03962
  • Journal Name: ACS OMEGA
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.32481-32488
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Black carrot (BC) with its potential health benefits due to the greater amount of anthocyanins and the potent antioxidant activity could be utilized as a natural colorant. The objective of this study was the entrapment of BC anthocyanins by external ionic gelation technique within the biopolymer matrix including pectin, alginate, and the mixture of both. Beads were characterized in terms of entrapment efficiency (EE), morphology, total anthocyanin content, and antioxidant capacity measured by the 2,2 '-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid assay. Furthermore, the color of the beads as well as yoghurt samples fortified with BC-containing beads were evaluated during storage at 4 degrees C for 4 weeks. While the EE for anthocyanins ranged between 47.3 and 96.6%, the antioxidant capacity changed from 50.4 to 97.7%. The maximum anthocyanin retention was found as 91.7% for 1% BC containing 1% pectin (P) + 1% alginate (A)-based beads after 4 weeks of storage. In addition, anthocyanin protection reached up to 62% and antioxidant capacity up to 55.6% in the fortified yoghurt samples containing A-based beads during storage. It is concluded that external ionic gelation could be a feasible method for BC anthocyanins due to its protective effect against acidic environment.