This study aimed to reveal the existence of size effect on the shear connectors used in the steel-concrete composite beams and slabs. The experimental study contains the monotonic tests of nine pushout specimens with the headed studs. Three-dimensional scaling was used for geometrically similar specimens of three sizes. High strength concrete slabs were used on both sides of the steel I-beam. The failure modes of the specimens include both concrete crushing and stud yielding. Finite element (FE) verification of the specimens was conducted using a realistic concrete damage constitutive model, Microplane Model M7. It is shown that there may be a non-negligible size effect based on the fracture patterns of the composite member. Bazant's size effect law (SEL) can fit the size effect behavior of the shear connectors. The design equations which do not include a size effect term have high correction factors that overestimate the tested specimens. A new design equation can be drawn using the size effect factor for strength reduction of shear connectors.