In this paper, we propose a cooperative spectrum sharing protocol for cognitive radio networks (CRNs) which operate in underlay mode with an automatic repeat-request (ARQ)-based primary user (PU) including primary transmitter (PT) and primary receiver (PR) and a bidirectionally communicating secondary user (SU) which consists of the nodes S1 and S2. In ARQ-based PU, ACKnowledgement/Negative-ACKnowledgement (ACK/NACK) messages are sent from PR to PT and listened by S1 and S2 to control the PU's packet success. Si (i=1 or 2) alerts both PT and PR if its reception from PT is successed or failed and PR considers the link from Si or PT, respectively. PU transmits its packet by accessing the spectrum alone or by cooperating with SU or under an interference caused by SU. If PT transmits alone its packet successfully, in the next time slot it transmits a new packet in underlay mode during which SU access the spectrum simultaneously with a tolerable interference level to improves the PU's performance. Conversely, if PT fails to transmit alone its packet and at least one of the nodes S1 and S2 success to decode it, then S1 or S2 cooperates with PT attending as a relay to enhance the PU's throughput in the next time slot during which PT stays silent. If both of S1 and S2 fail to decode PT's packet, PT retransmits its packet in underlay mode. When the first transmission of PT's packet is failed in underlay mode, PT retransmits this packet alone. We derive analytical expressions for the throughputs of PU and SU and show that the proposed protocol significantly improves the PU's throughput compared to non-CR scheme while stabilizing the SU's throughput at high SNR values.